R format output

By Andrie de Vries, Joris Meys. When you produce reports in R, you will want your numbers to appear all nicely formatted to enhance the impact of your data on the viewer. You can use format to turn your numbers into pretty text, ready for printing. This function takes a number of arguments to control the format of your result. Here are a few:. If TRUEit suppresses the leading spaces.

In addition, you can control the format of the decimal point with decimal. For example, you can print the number As a more practical example, to calculate the means 6th standard science book pdf maharashtra board some columns in mtcars and then print the results with two digits after the decimal point, use the following:. This wrapper allows you to paste your formatted number directly into a string.

The format argument uses special literals that indicate that the function should replace this literal with a variable and apply some formatting. The sprintf function is a lot more powerful than that: It gives you an alternative way of pasting the value of any variable into a string:.

What happens here is that, because you supplied two vectors each with two elements to sprintfyour result is a vector with two elements. R cycles through the elements and places them into the sprintf literals.

r format output

You can do everything with paste and format that you can do with sprintf. With over 20 years of experience, he provides consulting and training services in the use of R. How to Format Numbers in R. Related Book R For Dummies.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information.

Let me start by saying I am brand new to R, so any solution with a detailed explanation would be appreciated so I can learn from it. The output I am trying to get to is below:. You want a data frame. You can wrap as. Assuming that the numbers are correct, looks like you have everything you need, just transpose the data frame. Try this:. Learn more. How to format R data. Ask Question. Asked 4 years, 1 month ago.

Active 4 years, 1 month ago.

R Markdown with RStudio

Viewed times. I have a set of csv files with the following rows of information: "ID" "Date" "A" "B" where A and B are some data points I am attempting to get the output in a meaningful manner and am stuck on what I am missing. Shawn Shawn 3, 7 7 gold badges 38 38 silver badges 56 56 bronze badges. You can use as. Active Oldest Votes. Adam Adam 1, 1 1 gold badge 12 12 silver badges 25 25 bronze badges. Your data frame is a data frame, but table outputs a contingency table it's a fancy matrix.

I don't know what your definition of "short" is, but it's hard to imagine a world where 20 extra characters of code on line isn't short enough. Zafar Zafar 1, 9 9 silver badges 23 23 bronze badges. I hadn't updated my test data in the question. I don't need the round function. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google.

Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown.Excel files are used by many people to save and analyze their data. There are many R packages and solutions to import data from Excel to R and to export data from R to Excel:. As listed above, there are many ways to connect R and Excelbut many of these packages are :.

Reading and writing Excel files are know an easy task using xlsx and XLConnect packages. Formatting Excel files using xlsx package is also possible. However, it requires a hard coding in R. This is why, I implemented r2excel package which depends on xlsx package and it provides an easy to use functions to quickly import data from excel and to create a nice Excel report. To add a header to a worksheet the xlsx. A simplified format is :. The method above is very repetitive. You can use the function xlsx.

The function xlsx. Discussion 5. Many solutions to read and write Excel files using R software Excel files are used by many people to save and analyze their data. RExcel software : This is a powerful tool that can be used to execute directly R code from an Excel spreadsheet but it is available for windows only. It may be slow for large data sets xlsx package : This is my favorite package to readwrite and format Excel files in R. It is a java-based solution and can be used to read and write both xls and xlsx file formats.

As listed above, there are many ways to connect R and Excelbut many of these packages are : hard to work with or only work in Windows or require additional drivers or only work with old versions of Excel.

The aim of this article is to show you how to use r2excel package to easily read, write and format Excel files. Available R functions The list of functions available in r2excel package are : xlsx.

This is useful to skip lines between two data frames. These functions are described in the next sections. Create your first Excel file library "r2excel" Create an Excel workbook. Add headers To add a header to a worksheet the xlsx. A simplified format is : xlsx. Possible values are 0 default value, no underline1 underline with one line2 underline with two lines.

Add a paragraph of texts The function xlsx. Add a hyperlink The function xlsx. A simplified format is: xlsx. Add a data frame The function xlsx.Keep the markdown file generated by knitting. Method to be used for printing data frames. Valid values include "default", "kable", "tibble", and "paged".

The "default" method uses a corresponding S3 method of printtypically print.

Using format() with numbers

The "kable" method uses the knitr::kable function. The "tibble" method uses the tibble package to print a summary of the data frame. In addition to the named methods you can also pass an arbitrary function to be used for printing data frames. An optional function that runs before knitting which receives the input input filename passed to render and A function to call when rmarkdown::render finishes execution as registered with a on.

An R Markdown output format definition that can be passed to render. Created by DataCamp. Define an R Markdown output format Define an R Markdown output format based on a combination of knitr and pandoc options. Community examples Looks like there are no examples yet. Post a new example: Submit your example. API documentation. Put your R skills to the test Start Now.This tutorial explains how to control the number of decimal places within the R programming language.

The table of contents looks as follows:.

r format output

Figure 1 shows an overview of three different alternatives for controlling decimal places in R. However, in the following examples I will explain these alternatives in more detail.

Consider the following numeric data object:. As you can see: A number with five decimal places. In the following examples, you will learn how to format these decimals in R. If we want to format the decimal places of one specific number or a vector of numberswe can use the format function in combination with the round function and the specification nsmall. Consider the following R syntax:. As you can see: The number of digits after the decimal point was reduced to three.

Note: The output of the format function is a character string. If we want to do calculations with this output, we need to convert it back to the numeric class first. The sprintf R function also provides the possibility to control decimal places of a certain number or a numeric vector.

The output is the same as before. Again, we created a character string with three decimal places. As you can see, the console output is a number with only three decimal places in contrast to the five decimal places that we had before. With the previous R code i. In our specific example, 2 digits before the decimal point and 3 digits after the decimal point. If there would be more digits before the decimal point, the number of digits after the decimal point would be reduced e.

Note: The amount of digits has now been changed for our entire R session. If we would like to change the options back to the default specification, we would have to restart RStudio, or we would have to save the default specification in the forefront. If you want to learn more about the handling of numbers in R, I can recommend the following video of the YouTuber Anthony Damico. In the video, he explains different ways how to change options and global settings in R.

Besides the video, you might also want to read more tutorials on statisticsglobe. In this case, you could have a look at the following list of tutorials:. This tutorial showed you how to format the number of decimal places in R. Do you have any feedback or further questions?By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I have a dataframe's in R which want to write to excel or csv and to output in a nice format e.

At the moment I use the function write. This is not a major issue when it is only one dataframe, but I now want to do it for multiple dataframes and have these across multiple tabs in excel. Is there a way in which I can automatically copy my dataframes to specific cells in an existing excel spreadsheet with all the formatting correctly set?

As Joran said, you have the XLConnect package. Read the documentation or the vignette of that package carefully to know exactly what is possible.

r format output

Using XLConnect you normally overwrite the cell styles unless you set the style action to be "none" using. I haven't used the xlsx package yet.

Learn more. Write from R into template in excel while preserving formatting Ask Question. Asked 7 years, 9 months ago. Active 2 years, 2 months ago. Viewed 15k times. CSV files are text-only. You cannot include any formatting. By way of explanation, I down voted your question because "is it possible" is trivially answered with Google. Go try that JorisMeys Yeah,?A common task when working with character strings involves printing and displaying them on the screen or on a file. In this chapter you will learn about the different functions and options in R to print strings in a wide variety of common—and not so common—formats.

R provides a series of functions for printing strings.

How to Format Numbers in R

Other functions are useful for printing output either in the R console or to a given file. In this chapter we will describe the following print-related functions:. The workhorse printing function in R is print. As its names indicates, this function prints its argument on the R console:. To be more precise, print is a generic function, which means that you should use this function when creating printing methods for programmed classes.

As you can see from the previous example, print displays text in quoted form by default. When you type the name of an obbject in the R console, R calls the corresponding print method associated to the class of the object. If the object is a "data. Usually, simply typing the name of the object will suffice. So when do you actually call print? You use print when your code is inside an R expression i.

Typical examples that require an explicit call to print is when you are interested in looking at some value within a loop, or a conditional structure. Consider the following dummy for loop. It iterates five times, each time adding 1 to the value of the iterator i :.

The above code works and R executes the additions, but nothing is displayed on the console. To be able to see the actual computations you should call print like so:. Another very useful function is cat which allows you to concatenate objects and print them either on screen or to a file.

Its usage has the following structure:. The argument By default, the strings are concatenated with a space character as separator. This can be modified with the sep argument. If you use cat with only one single string, you get a similar although not identical result as noquote :.

As you can see, cat prints its arguments without quotes.


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